Schizophrenia Research Paper - My Own Observations
Schizophrenia Research Paper - My Own Observations
When I was a child there was a big panic surrounding schizophrenia, this was during the early eighties, due to the releasing of long term studies show how wide spread this mental disorder was. The problem with that was, as I like to call it, is that schizophrenia is a “functional disability,” you can have it and never know, or know and not have an effect on how you live your life. The flip side of that coin is that there are physical problems with you so while the symptoms can be treated it’s not some thing that will go into remission or be cured. Schizophrenia is more common that you would think about 1 in 100 people worldwide have schizophrenia to some degree or another. Overall the chances of having schizophrenia or developing symptoms if you do have it are very low, even if you a directly related to someone who has it. Even in the case of identical twins you are only looking at a 48% chance of one twin having it even if the other one does.
The greatest recorded source of schizophrenia comes from genetic relation to someone who has schizophrenia, sort of a chicken and the egg type of situation. When you add in the fact that in this modern era social clustering and urbanization causes similar people to come together it’s almost impossible to avoid the speared of this anomaly of the brain. It would be like trying to breed out black hair in Hawaii.
The stereo type of a person with schizophrenia is often of the homeless man taking to an imaginary person or the catatonic teenager who ranges between normal sullen to in some cases erratic body movements or the person with a different personality every time who meet. This often what people picture when they think about schizophrenia, but the true is that there are many different levels and many different manifestation of the disorder. But I is not that simple there are actually many different factors that determine if you have it and even more that determine what type you have. To start with it takes a genetic relationship to someone to even have a chance at having it. Even then as they found out in a Finnish study ("Genetic boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum: Evidence from the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia.") when comparing occurrences of schizophrenia in adopted away children that the differences between the high risk children (those who’s mothers had schizophrenia) and low risk children (those who had a blood relative who had schizophrenia) were marginal.
To add more confusion to the actual causes beyond genetic relations is the genetics of schizophrenia itself. Schizophrenia is a “spectrum” disorder meaning simple it has many copycat disorders, which in some case are identified as a separate disorder, or it is thought to be a level of severity when it turns out to be something different all together. Kenneth Kendler ("The genetics of schizophrenia: Chromosomal deletions, attentional disturbances, and spectrum boundaries.”) looked several researchers report and investigated the connection between missing, suppressed, and damaged chromosome in relation to different types of schizophrenia. With this level of complexity it almost as if do not know anything at all about this disorder.
The thing is that in any case of a detrimental force on the human body there is a side effect that allows it to work. (i.e. your headache is so bad that you don’t have the strength to take aspirin.) In the case of cationic schizophrenia the symptoms of avolition in a child or teenager seem normal, who isn’t used to the idea of a person who isn’t self-motivated. Or alogia where the type of schizophrenia is linked to lowered I.Q. so the slow responses to verbal questions almost seem normal.
From this I found a study looking at similarities between families with two different yet pronounced mental illnesses. ("Familial aggregation of delusional proneness in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees.") In this study the focus was on the first-degree relatives of people with bi-polar disorder or schizophrenia, using the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory test as a baseline, to measure the tendencies toward disillusions. The results almost expected mean result among the people with disorders but with their relatives that were unaffected sibling showed very similar results regardless of the disorder. On the other hand affected relative of the schizophrenia families show some first-rank symptoms. But when the parameters of the test were changed (from a competency to a categorical disease definition) those who showed those first-rank symptoms fail to meet the criteria for schizophrenia.
This has made treating this disorder very important because of the difficulty in identifying behavior that may be a detrimental side effect of this disorder. Simple put depending on how you are being tested for schizophrenia you may not send up any flags then you may develop some of the problems while showing very minor symptoms. One major side effect is the increased likelihood of suicide in a study conducted by Wayne Fenton ("Depression, suicide, and suicide prevention in schizophrenia.") found that on average people with schizophrenia lose 10 years off of their life span. There is also an increase of almost 80% in the tendency to commit or attempt suicide in their lifetime. Combine this with the high-risk period, which is greatest during the onset of the disorder and the first 10 years of the illness. (W. Fenton) so far in several studies documented after 1993 that the introduction and widespread use of Clozapine, that mortality rates associated with suicide dropped a great deal. (W. Fenton)
Although there seems to be a correlation between Clozapine and reduced mortality rate you cannot discount he psychopathological aspect in regards to the more comprehensive treatment that have be available. The effects or tailored treatment that looks at not just the chemical problems but also the environmental, social, and personal self-awareness of a person with schizophrenia. Case in point compression between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders (“Schizophrenia; Research on schizophrenia discussed by K. Sim and co- researchers.") found that the latter had a better prognosis than the former. Though when the subject’s of this study had their level of insight along with other quality of life issues raised the difference that the difference between the two disorders showed no better or no worst levels of severity. (This was done with first episode schizophrenias patients, so may no apply across the board.) Even though I don’t feel that I have a full grasp of schizophrenia I have learned a great deal abut the subject and open my eyes to world of mental disorders.
Kendler, Kenneth S. "The genetics of schizophrenia: Chromosomal deletions, attentional disturbances, and spectrum boundaries." American Journal of Psychiatry. 9 2003. 1549. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. THE ART INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON. 31 Jul 2008. .
Schurhoff, Frank; Szoke, Andrei; Meary, Alexandre; Bellivier, Frank; Et al. "Familial aggregation of delusional proneness in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees." American Journal of Psychiatry. 7 2003. 1313. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. THE ART INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON. 31 Jul 2008. .
Schizophrenia; Research on schizophrenia discussed by K. Sim and co- researchers." Mental Health Weekly Digest. 26 Nov 2007. 125. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. THE ART INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON. 31 Jul 2008. .
Tienari, Pekka; Wynne, Lyman C; Laksy, Kristian; Moring, Juha; Et al. "Genetic boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum: Evidence from the Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia." American Journal of Psychiatry. 9 2003. 1587. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. THE ART INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON. 31 Jul 2008. .
Fenton, Wayne S. "Depression, suicide, and suicide prevention in schizophrenia." Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior. 1 2000. 34. eLibrary. Proquest CSA. THE ART INSTITUTE OF WASHINGTON. 31 Jul 2008. .